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100 days of Modi vs 100 days of UPA-II: who is more inclusive?

Gyanendra Keshri, Executive Editor, INCLUSION

Prime Minister Narendra Modi (centre) releasing mission document of 'Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana' in New Delhi.

The expression “100 days” of a government made headlines in India five years ago when the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) led by Congress party was re-elected in May 2009. Almost all ministers announced 100-day targets and subsequently presented report cards. That was the high point of Manmohan Singh led UPA government. It was celebrated as a landmark event. The setting of the short-term (almost one quarter) target and report cards were seen as introduction of business culture in the functioning of the government. However, most of the targets were never realised and such targets became cruel jokes.

Although Prime Minister Narendra Modi-led government has made it clear that it does not believe in such short-term targets, media euphoria is obvious. The expression “100 days” has been making headlines once again. The only difference this time is that there is no targets and report cards expected from ministers.

Here we list major decisions targeted at socio-economic inclusion during the 100 days of Modi government vis-à-vis UPA-II government led by Manmohan Singh.

Major socio-economic decisions of Narendra Modi government in 100 days of office

  • Planning Commission scrapped. No clarity on new entity 

  • Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana introduced aiming to bring all households under banking net

  • National Food Grid to connect deficient areas with surplus producing regions to reduce wastage of fruits and vegetables

  • Rural job-guarantee scheme, MGNREGA, which provides 100 days of paid employment a year, to become more focused on asset creation 

  • Raises limit on foreign direct investment in defence sector to 49 per cent from 26 per cent 

  • Labour law reforms

  • Rail fares hiked by 14.2 per cent. Freight charges increased by 6.5 per cent

  • Set up Special Investigation Team (SIT) to probe black money

  • Streamlined decision-making process by scrapped Group of Ministers (GoM) and Empowered Group of Ministers (EGoMs), 62 such panels formed during the UPA government

  • Kisan Vikas Patra (KVP) re-launched to encourage savings. KVP is a popular instrument among small farmers. Even unbanked people can invest in this instrument. 

  • Expenditure Management Commission constituted to look at expenditure reforms

  • Housing for all by 2022. Rs.4,000 crore earmarked in the Budget for National Housing Bank with a view to increase the flow of cheaper credit for affordable housing

  • Incentives for Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs) Infrastructure Investment Trusts.

  • Ganga Conservation Mission “Namami Gange” for conservation and improvement of river Ganga. Rs 2,037 crore allocated in the Budget.

  • Rs 7060 crore allocated for developing 100 smart cities

  • Digital India programme launched to bridge the divide between digital “haves” and “have-nots”. Aimed to ensure Broadband connectivity at village level, improved access to services through IT enabled platforms, greater transparency in Government processes and increased indigenous production of IT hardware and software for exports and improved domestic availability.

  • Priority for free drug and diagnosis services to achieve the goal of “Health for All”

  • Swatchh Bharat Abhiyan aiming to cover every household by total sanitation by the year 2019, the 150th year of the Birth Anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi.

Major socio-economic decisions during the first 100 days of UPA-II government

  • Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act that seeks to ensure that every child has his or her right (as an entitlement) to get quality elementary education, and that the State with the help of families and communities, fulfills this obligation

  • Ensures 50 per cent reservation for women in Panchayats

  • Outlays for rural development almost doubled in 2009-10 budget presented by then finance minister Pranab Mukherjee

  • Fiscal stimulus to shield the economy from the negative impact of the global economic slowdown

  • To counter the negative fallout of the global slowdown on the Indian economy, Government responded by providing three focused fiscal stimulus packages in the form of tax relief and increased expenditure on public projects along with RBI taking a number of monetary easing and liquidity enhancing measures.

  • Promised to improve delivery mechanisms of the government with a view to deepen and broaden the agenda for inclusive development


(Gyanendra Keshri can be reached at gyanendra@skoch.in)


Bhaskar Chatterjee - via email chandel282000@yahoo.co.uk
  1. Easiest thing is to make tall promises. One has to only open one's mouth and make some noise!
  2. So far, nothing has happened on the ground except Bhumi Pujan for some road projects.
  3. The peace at LOC with Pakistan has been shattered with loss of lives.
  4. Communal clashes are soaring in UP and West Bengal. WB never had any communal disharmony earlier. BJP has initiated this.
  5. Coal shortage mounting. Govt. could not resolve coal block allocation problem within 100 days.
  6. Promise to contain food inflation has fallen flat. Govt. is in fact supporting the jamakhori and munafakhori middlemen who are looting the farmers and the consumers.
  7. Govt.'s refusal to allow FDI in retails only goes to prove their lack of will to break this unholy nexus of politicians and middlemen.
  8. The HRD minister is not qualified. Does not have any experience or understanding regarding this most important portfolio. She is nothing but HMV (Her master's Voice) in place of HRD.
  9. Modi's authoritative style of functioning is not allowing the ministers and bureaucrats to take any initiative. They are only required to follow orders. Several experienced and capable leaders are bypassed like Sushma Swaraj.
  10. No thrust towards corruption elimination. Lokpal not appointed.
  11. South and East hardly represented in the Govt.
  12. The Sangh Parivar elements are dividing communities. Modi's silence is taken as an approval.
  13. This is having far reaching adverse effects.
  14. 30 per cent of BJP MPs (including several ministers and BJP President) have criminal cases against them. Modi had promised fast track hearing of all such cases. Nothing has happened.
  15. Modi is not lending his ears to good experienced people. He is cocooned within his PMO. Bureaucrats like to tell only good news to their masters. Modi is losing touch with reality. He must reach out to the states. He should be humble to go and meet the CMs in their states to discuss the implementation of strategies. Unless the states implement the strategies, what can the Centre do? For example, if UP, Bihar and WB does not cooperate, can the Ganga be cleaned?
  16. Someone should have the courage to tell Modi that India does not need bullet trains. It needs more schools, more irrigation, more power, better agriculture productivity, better mining productivity, more cheap housing, drinking water in all taps in rural India, improved sanitation in villages and cities (In his independence day speech, he did announce a scheme of toilets for girls in every school with the MP's funds. But that's not enough).
  17. Could not finalise Gas pricing within 100 days. This is badly affecting investment in the Oil & Gas sector.

    In my humble opinion, NaMo does not have the Vision, intellect, wisdom and leadership qualities to lead a diverse nation like India.

(The above comment was wrongly attributed to Bhaskar Chatterjee, senior IAS officer and currently Director General, Indian Institute of Corporate Affairs. We regret the error.)

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